Morphemic form: N{-aq}N (Combinations)
New orthography: -aq, -gaq
Proto-eskimoic root:
Morpheme type: Nominal modifier
Left sandhi: Sandhi-truncative
Right sandhi: None


Form and usage:

This is an old, non-productive morpheme found in many lexicalised words. The meaning is rather obscure, given as 'thing resembling something' by Fortescue et al. (2010). Schultz-Lorentzen (1958) describe it as giving the stem a specialised/more specific, and derived meaning, but exactly how is not further clarified.

One seemingly quite consistent (albeit lexicalised) usage is with animal names, where it denotes 'young/offspring of'. It is noted in Fortescue et al. (2010) that this usage is from {ʀaʀ}, which however is speculated to be a doubling of {aʀ} or a generalisation of {aʀ} from uvular stems. Thus, we record this special meaning with the present affix.

Left sandhi:

The affix is generally truncative. However, in some lexicalised words it appears that the affix has weakened the final consonant, rather than removing it, for example ivigaq from ivik. This may be caused by a preceding /ə/ (as in this case), or possibly also a long vowel which would otherwise have required an epenthetic consonant to be injected (by phonotactics).

Declension information

Stem type: Weak q-stem
Declension type: p-declined
Declension sandhi: Regular


Meaning Notes
thing resembling N Examples
young of N With animal names Examples