Morphemes

Morpheme New Orthography Proto-eskimoic English
V{'-tə}N -t un tool/means for Vb'ing
V{'-vigə}V -vigaa, -viginnippoq ðvikə- Agent Vb to/for/with respect to Patient
V{'-vik}N -vik ðviɣ place where one Vb
V{(gi)jaqtuq}V -artorpoq, -jartorpoq, -riartorpoq, -kkiartorpoq yaʀ(tuʀ)- go (in order) to Vb; Vb more and more
N{(l)liq}N +(l)leq l(l)iʀ one most in the N direction
*{(p)tauq} +taaq (p)tauq also
N{(q)cuaq}N +suaq, -rsuaq ðuɣaʀ(-) big (bad) N
V{(q)gusuk}V -rusuppoq, -kkusuppoq yuɣ- would like to Vb
N{(q)luinnaq}N +luinnaq, -rluinnaq l(l)u(C)aʀ- complete(ly) N
N{(q)vaaluk}N +paaluit, -rpaaluit aluk group of N
N{(q)vak}N +paat, -rpaat vaɣ(-) many N
N{(q)vakcuaq}N +passuit, -rpassuit great flock of N
V{(q)valuk}N -rpaluk, +paluk valuk- sound of Vb'ing
V{(v)vigə}V +(f)figaa, +(f)figinnippoq ðvikə- Agent Vb to/for/with respect to Patient; Agent Vb at/on Patient
V{(v)vik}N +fik, +ffik ðviɣ place where one Vb; time when one Vb's
N{-Vraq}N -eraq, -oraq ʀaʀ small N
N{-aluk}N -aluit aluk group of N
N{-araq}N -araq ʀaʀ small N
N{-gə}V -gaa, -givaa, -ginnippoq kə- Agent has Patient as N
V{-gə}V -gaa, -raa, -givaa, -rivaa, -ginnippoq, -rinnippoq kə- Agent considers Patient to be (too) Vb'ing
N{-innaq}N -innaq, -annaq, -ginnaq ŋinnaʀ(-) just (an) N
N{-li}V li- Actor makes N; Actor spends the N
N{-lijaq}N -liaq li- a made/fabricated/produced N
N{-liq}V -lerpaa, -serpaa, -liivoq, -siivoq liʀ- Agent provides/equips Patient with N
N{-liuq}V -liorpoq, -siorpoq li(C)uʀ- Actor makes N
N{-livik}N -livik, -sivik container for N; place to keep/store N
N{-lək}N -lik ləɣ one equipped with N
N{-qaq}V -qarpoq ŋqaʀ- Actor has N; there is N
V{-qatə}N -qat qan fellow Vb'er
V{-rijaq}N -riaq, -rissat yaʀ place/thing where one Vb
N{-rujuk}N -rujuk ʀuluk bad (big) N
N{-rujukcuaq}N -rujussuaq enormous N
N{-tuqaq}N -toqaq tuqaq old N
N{-u}V -uvoq ŋu- Actor is an N
V{-usiq}N -useq uciʀ manner/way of Vb'ing
V{-utə}N -ut -un tool/means for Vb'ing
N{-vik}N -vik piɣ(-) real N
V{-ðaq}N +saq, -saq, -taq, -gaq, -aq ðaʀ, kaʀ One who/that is Vb'ed; a Vb'ee
V{-ðaqaq}V -taqarpoq, -saqarpoq, -gaqarpoq Actor has Vb'ed some indefinite N
V{-ðau}V -taavoq, -saavoq, -gaavoq Patient is/was Vb'ed
*{aa} +aa a(a) o ...
{aamma} aamma amma and; also
{aammalu} aammalu furthermore; Do it again!
*{aasiit} +aasiit aaci(in) as usual; now again; how typical of ...
{aavəq}N aaveq ayvəʀ walrus
{acci}N assik atə(ði) image
{accilijaq}N assiliaq, assilissat picture; photograph
{accək}N assik, assinga atə(ði) image; copy
{agləq}N alleq aɬɣiʀ long-tailed duck
*{ait} +aat ay if you please; right?
{ajuaq}N ajuaq ayu(ẑ)aq boil
{ajuq}V ajorpoq ayuq- Actor is bad; Actor is broken/not working/out of order
{akiraq}N akeraq akiʀaq enemy
{aklunaaq}N allunaaq akluna(a)q thinner rope
{akunnəq}N akunneq, akornganni akunnəq area or space (between something)
{akək}N akik akəʀ harpoon barb
{akəruq}N akeroq akəquʀ knot (in wood)
{aliguq}N aligoq aliɣuq crystal
{aləq}N aleq aləq harpoon line
{amaruq}N amaroq amaquʀ wolf
{amiq}N ameq amiʀ skin; leather
{apqusinəq}N aqqusineq, aqqusernga apqucinəq road
{apqutə}N aqqut, aqqutaa apʀun path; street; way
{aqajaruq}N aqajaroq aq(ə)yaquʀ stomach (anatomy)
{aqnaq}N arnaq aʀnaʀ woman; mother
{aqvak}N arfak aʀvaɣ edge of hand
{aqvinələk}N arfinillit aʀvin(ə)ləɣ six
{aqvinəq}N arfineq, arferngat aʀvaɣ, aʀvin(ə)ləɣ six
{aqviqsanələk}N arfersanillit aʀvin(ə)ləɣ sixteen
{aqviqsanəq}N arfersaneq, arfersarngat aʀvaɣ, aʀvin(ə)ləɣ sixteen
{aqvəq}N arfeq aʀvəʀ whale
{atausiq}N ataaseq, ataatsimut ataʀuciʀ one
{atnuraaq}N annoraaq atnuʀaaq anorak
{atqanələk}N aqqanillit eleven
{atqanəq}N aqqaneq, aqqarngat atʀaʀ- eleven
{atuq}V atorpaa, atuivoq, atorpoq atuʀ- Agent uses Patient; Agent has intercourse with Patient; Patient is used/in use; Patient is (sexually) abused
{atuvagaq}N atuagaq book
{atuvaq}V atuarpaa, atuarpoq, atuaavoq atuaq- Agent reads Patient; Agent reads/goes to school.
{atəq}N ateq, aqqa atəʀ name
{auk}N aak aðuɣ blood
{aulisagaq}N aalisagaq aulacaʀ- fish
{aullaitə}N aallaat aullaʀ- rifle
{auvcək}N aassik auẑvik caterpillar
{auvəq}N aaveq aʀuvəʀ(aʀ) roof beam
{avataq}N avataq avataʀ hunting bladder/float
{aŋlagaq}N allagaq, allakkat alŋaʀ(-) letter
{aŋlak}V allappaa, allappoq alŋaʀ(-) Agent writes Patient; Agent writes
{aŋnəq}N anneq aŋə- the biggest/bigger
{aŋə}V angivoq aŋə- Actor is big
V{ccusiq}N -ssuseq uciʀ quality of Vb'ing
V{ccutə}N -ssut -un cause/means for Vb'ing
V{gajuuq}N -gajooq, -rajooq, -kkajooq kayuɣ(-) one who often Vb
V{galuaq}N -gigalui, -ugaluaq ɣaluaq- former N
V{galuaq}V +galuarpoq, -raluarpoq, -kkaluarpoq ɣaluaq- was (actually) Vb'ing (but/however ...)
*{guuq} +gooq, -rooq, -nngooq ŋu(C)uʀ he says that ...; it is said that ...
{icci}N issi itðə cold
{iccək}N issik itðə cold
{igalaaq}N igalaaq, igalassat window; window pane
{ilulijaq}N iluliaq, Ilulissat iluliʀaʀ iceberg; Ilulissat
{ilək}N ilik iliɣ helper; team mate
{ima} ima imma thus
{imaluunniit} imaluunniit or
{imanəq}N imaneq imanəʀ mussel
{imaq}N imaq ima(ʀ) sea; contents
{immaqa} immaqa imma maybe/perhaps
{inuak}N inuak, inuaq, inugaq iŋuɣ, inuɣaʀ toe; finger
{inuk}N inuk iŋuɣ human; person; soul
{ipinəq}N ipineq ipi(ɣ) meat near the bone; connective tissue
{iqalugaq}N eqalugaq iqaɬuɣaʀ trout
{iqaluk}N eqaluk iqaɬuɣ arctic char
{iqnəq}N erneq iʀnəʀ son
{iqək}N eqik iqə(ʀ) bay in fjord
{isaruq}N isaroq iyaquʀ wing
{isuma}N isuma icuma(-) mind; thought; meaning
{isə}N isi itəɣ boot tip
{isəgak}N isigak itəɣaʀ foot
{iŋkək}N ikkik iŋkiʀ gum
{iŋləq}N illeq iŋləʀ sleeping platform/bed
{iəgaq}N iigaq iɣəɣaʀ wall
{kaavəq}N kaaveq, kaarfa kavẑaq, kavẑəq top (of something)
{kalaaliq}N kalaaleq, kalaallit, kalaallisut kalaaliq Greenlander; Greenlandic
{kamək}N kamik, kamiit, kammit, kanngit, kammi, kanngi kaməɣ boot
{kanajuq}N kanajoq kanayu(ʀ) arctic sculpin
{kanijuq}N kanioq kanayu(ʀ) arctic sculpin
{katləq}N kalleq katluɣ thunder
{kaŋəq}N kangeq, karra, karrit kaŋəʀ promontory; grain/corn
N{kcaq}N -ssaq kðaʀ future N
{kiŋu}N kingu kiŋu- area behind/after; stern
{kiŋulliq}N kingulleq kiŋul(l)iʀ the last
{kiŋunəq}N kinguneq, kingornga, kingornga(ti)gut kiŋunəʀ consequence; future
V{kkajaaq}N -kkajaaq one that is rather Vb
{kəjinaq}N kiinaq, kiinni kəɣinaʀ face
{kəkijak}N kikiak kəkyaɣ nail
{kənlək}N killik, killeq, killinga kənlə border; edge
{kəsiatni} kisianni, kisiat kəði- but; although
{kəsitcitə}N kisitsit kəcit- number
*{li} +li ɬi but; already/ever since then
V{llammak}N -llammak one who is good at Vb'ing
V{lqaaq}N -qqaaq ɬʀa(C)aʀ- one who recently Vb'ed
V{lqammiq}N -qqammeq lʀammiq-, tʀammiq- one who recently Vb'ed
*{lu} +lu ɬu and; we (Subject(s) and I)
*{lusuuq} +lusooq just like; as if
*{luunniit} +luunniit unni(in) or; any-; not even/at all; even though
*{maanna} +maanna by the way, it is thus that ...
{malək}N malik malək wave
{mamək}N mamik, maminga mamə underside
{marraq}N marraq maʀʀaʀ mud
*{mi} +mi mi what about ...?; indeed
{miiraq}N meeraq mi(i)ʀayuq child
{mikcə}N missaa mikŝə approximation
{mikcək}N missik, missinga mikŝə approximation
{miknəq}N minneq mikə- the smallest/smaller
{mikə}V mikivoq mikə- Actor is small
N{minəq}N +mineq vinəʀ piece of N
*{mitaava} +mitaava might it be that...?
{mulək}N muleq, mulinga nipple of an animal; blade of an oar
{mumək}N mumik, muminga mumiɣ reverse side
{mələk}N milik mələɣ cork
{mətəq}N miteq mətəʀ eider duck
{naalagaq}N naalagaq, naalakki master; The Lord (God)
{naalak}V naalappaa, naalappoq naɣa(t)- Agent obeys Patient; Agent is obedient
{naaq}N naaq, nassat na(ẑ)aq belly/abdomen
{nagguaq}N nagguaq navɣuʀ- joint (anatomy)
{nagturalək}N nattoralik naɣət-, naɣtuqaʀ, naktuʀalək eagle
{najak}N najak, naja, naanni najaɣ little sister (to a male)
{nalə}N nalaa, nalaani nalə- time of Possessor; direction of Possessor
{nalək}N nalik, nalinga, nalinganut nalə- value
{naləŋinnaq}N nalinginnaq ordinary; anybody/thing
{nanuq}N nanoq, nanu nanuʀ polar bear
V{naq}N +naq!, +nat! naʀ- how Vb it is!
{narasiq}N naraseq na(a)ʀa(a)yiq frog
{natəq}N nateq natəʀ floor; bottom
{nauləgaq}N naaligaq naʀuɬəkaʀ, naʀuɬəɣ- spear; javelin; toy harpoon
{naulək}V naalippaa, naalippoq naʀuɬəɣ- Agent harpoons Patient; Agent harpoons a sea animal
V{niaq}N +niaq ni(C)aʀ- one who tries to Vb
{niaquq}N niaqoq nay(ə)quʀ head
{niggitə}N niggit niɣəðuʀun bow of a fire drill
{niju}N niu, nissut niʀu leg
V{niutə}N +niut thing for Vb'ing
V{nqik}V -qqippoq nqiɣ- Vb again
{nujaq}N nujaq, nutsat nuyaʀ a single strand of hair (on the head)
{nukaq}N nukaq, nuka, nukki nukaʀ younger sibling
{nukək}N nukik, nukinga nukəɣ power/electricity; strength; sinew
{nukəruaq}N nukeruaq, nukerussat nukəruq, nukəɣ sinew; roots of a tree
{nuviq}N nuffit nuɣiʀ bird dart
{nəgaq}N nigaq nəɣaʀ snare
{nəgəq}N nigeq nəɣəʀ wind from south west
{nəməq}N nimeq nəməʀ(-) bandage; wrapping
{nəpə}N nipi nəpə voice
V{nəq}N +neq nəʀ the act of Vb'ing; the Vb'ing of Possessor; while/during Possessor Vb'ed; before Possessor Vb'ed; because of Vb'ing; the more/most Vb'ing
V{nəq ajuq}V +neq ajorpoq does not/never Vb
V{nəqaq}V +neqarpoq Patient is/gets Vb'ed
V{nəqcaq}N +nersaq the most Vb'ing (of N)
{nəqləq}N nerleq nəʀləʀ goose
V{nəqpaaq}N +nerpaaq nəʀpa(C)aʀ the most Vb'ing
V{nəqpau}V +nerpaavoq, +nerpaajuvoq Actor is the most Vb'ing
V{nəqtuuq}N +nertooq nəʀtu- one who Vb's strongly; one that tends to Vb' a lot
{nəqə}N neqi nəqə meat
V{nəru}V +neruvoq Actor is more/most Vb'ing
V{nərujukcuu}V +nerujussuuvoq Actor is much (much) more Vb'ing
{pagnəq}N panneq paɣnəʀ caribou bull
{pamijuq}N pamioq, pamissut pamyuʀ tail
{panik}N panik paniɣ daughter
{papək}N papik papəɣ tail of a bird
{patəq}N pateq patəʀ marrow
{pi}N pia pi(-) (some)thing
{pinəq}N pineq piɣinəʀ straw for boots
{pisuqaq}N pisoqaq old (thing)
{piŋŋuaq}N pinnguaq piŋŋuðaʀ- toy
{pujuq}N pujoq puyuʀ fog; mist; smoke
{putuguq}N putugoq, putukkut putukuʀ big toe
{puuq}N pooq pu(ɣ)uq bag
{puəcə}N puisi puɣə- seal (animal)
{qaatəq}N qaateq qaatəq plate on handle
{qajaq}N qajaq, qaannat, qaanni qayaʀ kayak
{qanəq}N qaneq qanəʀ(-) mouth
{qarasaq}N qarasaq qaqətaʀ brain
{qatəgak}N qatigak, qatiggi qatəɣ back
{qatək}N qatik qatəɣ breast bone (of a bird)
{qilalugaq}N qilalugaq qilaluɣaq beluga whale; narwhal
{qipək}N qipik qipək blanket; duvet
V{qlaaq}N -rlaaq one who recently Vb'ed
{qugturaq}N quttoraq quɣtuqaʀ thigh; ham
{qulliq}N qulleq qulliʀ the uppermost/highest one; lamp
{qulə}N qummut, qulaa, qulaani qulə- the area above something; upwards
{qulək}N qulit, qulinut, qulingat, qulingi qulə(t) ten
{qupnəq}N qunneq, qunnerup, qunnerit, qunner, qunner, qunneq qupnəʀ cleft in rock
{qupə}V qupivaa, qupisivoq, qupivoq qupə- Agent splits Patient; Patient splits
{qətəq}N qiteq, qeqqa qətəʀ middle
{qəŋaq}N qingaq qəŋaʀ nose
{sanək}N sanik canəɣ dust
{sapaŋaq}N sapangaq capaŋaq pearl
V{saq}V +sarpaa, +saavoq caʀ- Agent tries to cause/make/get Patient to Vb
{saunəq}N saaneq, saarnga, saarngit caunəq bone
V{sautə}N +saat tool/means for (causing) Vb'ing
{savək}N savik caviɣ, cavəɣ knife
{sianəq}N sianeq civanəʀ bell
{sikuaq}N sikuaq ciku(C)aʀ newly formed (thin) ice
{sinirijak}N sineriak, sinerissat ciniʀ-, cinə coast
V{sinnau}V +sinnaavoq ŋinnaʀ(-) can Vb
{sinə}N sini, sinaa cinə edge; frame; shore
{sinək}N sinik cinək- sleep
{siqinəq}N seqineq ciqinəʀ sun
{siutəruq}N siuteroq ci(ɣ)utəquʀ, ciɣun snail
{sivu}N siu, siumut civu the area in front (of something); bow/front (of a kayak or boat)
{sivulliq}N siulleq, siullermik civul(l)iʀ the first; the previous
{sivunəq}N siuneq, siornga, siorngani, siorngatigut, siorngaak civunəʀ What lies ahead/in front; front of face; the past (time)
{siŋiq}N singeq ciŋiʀ shoelace; ribbon on kamik
V{ssa}V -ssaaq, -ssapput tya- future, 'shall' Vb
{suli}V sulivoq cu(na)li- Actor works
{sulugpaugaq}N suluppaagaq culuɣpa(C)uɣ, culuɣ reddish rockfish
{suraluaq}N soraluaq curuciq nephew; niece
{suugaq}N suugaq cavəɣ tip of bird dart
{suŋaq}N sungaq, sunngi cuŋa(ʀ) (yellow) bile
{səkcək}N sissik təkðə(ʀ) scale in ear
N{taaq}N +taaq taaq(-) new N
{taaq}N taaq, tarrup, tarrumut taʀəʀ(-) darkness
{taknəq}N tanneq takə- longest/smaller; the longest of the two clock-hands
{taku}V takuaa, takunnippoq, takuvugut, takuuk! Agent sees Patient
{takə}V takivoq takə- Actor is long
{taliq}N taleq taɬiʀ arm
{tapəq}N tapeq tapəʀ(-) addition; supplement
N{taq}N +taq taʀ part/member of N
{taqnək}N tarnik taʀ(ə)ʀnəʀ soul; psyche
{taqnəq}N tarneq taʀ(ə)ʀnəʀ soul; psyche
{taquaq}N taquaq taqu(C)aʀ provision(s) (for a journey)
{tarajuq}N tarajoq tar(ə)yuʀ salt
{tasiq}N taseq taciʀ lake
V{tqu}V -qquaa, -qqusivoq, -qquvoq ðqə Agent bids/asks Patient to Vb; Patient requests to be Vb'ed
N{ttiaq}N -tsiaq tciaq a fair-sized N
{tulugaq}N tulugaq tulukaʀ raven
{tunəq}N tuneq tunəq inland dweller
{tupəq}N tupeq tupəʀ tent
N{tuq}V +torpoq, +sorpoq tuʀ- Actor consumes N; Actor uses N (for transportation)
*{tuq} +toq tuʀ wish
{tuqut}V toquppaa, toqutsivoq, toquppoq tuqut- Agent kills Patient; Agent/Patient kills himself/commits suicide
{tuutlək}N tuullik tu(C)utləɣ great northern diver (common loon)
{tuŋliq}N tulleq tuŋ(ə)liʀ the next (in a sequence); next to possessor; neighbour
{tuŋə}N tungaani, tungaanut tuŋə- in/to/from the direction of posessor.
V{təgə}V +tigaaq təkə- `Subject is as Vb'ing (as something)
{təkit}V tikippaa, tikippoq təkit- Agent has arrived at/to/in Patient; Agent has arrived
{təmə}N timi, timmut təmə body (anatomy); towards land
{təpə}N tipi təpə smell
{təpək}N tipik, tikka təpə smell
{təqlək}N terlik təʀlək- seal feeling safe
V{tət}V +tippaa, -tippaa, -tsippaa, +sippaa, -sippaa, +titsivoq, -titsivoq, -tsitsivoq, +tippoq, -tippoq, -tsippoq, +sippoq, -sippoq, +tillugu, -tillugu, -tsillugu, +sillugu, -sillugu, +tinnagu, -tinnagu, -tsinnagu, +sinnagu, -sinnagu tət- Agent lets/causes Patient to Vb; Patient is (being) Vb'ed; while Patient Vb'ed; before Patient Vb'ed; Agent thinks that Patient Vb's
{təŋmijaq}N timmiaq, timmissat təŋmi(C)aʀ, təŋə- bird; birdskin coat
{ugsək}N ussik ox
{ujamik}N ujamik, ujammit uyamiɣ necklace
{ujarak}N ujarak uyaʀaɣ small stone/pebble
{ukaliq}N ukaleq ukaðiʀ arctic hare
{ulək}N ulik uliɣ(-) cover; bedspread; blanket; shawl
{umluq}N ulloq umɬuʀ day
{umlurijaq}N ulloriaq, ullorissat umɬuʀ, umɬuʀiaq star
{umək}N umik umək facial hair; curtain
*{una} +una, +uku it is ...
{unəq}N uneq unəʀ armpit
{uqaq}N oqaq uqaq(-) tongue
{uqaq}V oqarpoq uqaq(-) Actor says something
{uqausiq}N oqaaseq, oqaasii uqauciʀ, uqaq(-) word; language
{utuqqaq}N utoqqaq utuqqaʀ an old person
{uugaq}N uugaq, uuaq uðukaʀ cod
{uviluq}N uiloq uviluʀ mussel
{uvinək}N uinik uvinəɣ flesh (of human)
{uŋasik}V ungasippoq uŋasik Actor is distant/far away
{uŋpək}N uppik uŋpəɣ owl
V{ðaq}V +sarpoq, +tarpoq ðaʀ- recurring/habitual Vb
V{ðuq}N +toq, +soq, -tsoq ðuʀ One who/that Vb; a Vb'er.
V{ðuqaq}V +toqarpoq, +soqarpoq there is/are someone (who is/are) Vb'ing
V{ðuqcuu}V +torsuuvoq, +sorsuuvoq greatly Vb'ing
V{ðurujukcuu}V +torujussuuvoq, +sorujussuuvoq very (very) much Vb'ing
V{ðuu}V +tuuvoq, +suuvoq Actor is (characteristically) Vb'ing
V{ðə}N +ti, +si ðə Agent; Vb'er
V{ŋŋit}V -nngilaq, -nngilaa, -nngila?, -nngitsoq, -nngiliuk?, -nnginnama, -nngikkili! nʀit- not, negation
N{ŋŋuaq}N -nnguaq ŋ(ŋ)uðaʀ(-) little (cute) N; right/just
N{ŋŋuq}V -nngorpoq ŋ(ŋ)uʀ- Actor has become N; it is N o'clock
N{ŋŋuqtət}V -nngortippaa, -nngortitsivoq Agent makes Patient into N
{əcaruaq}N isarussat əẑaʀuaq glasses
{əcə}N isi əðə eye
{əkviaq}N iffiaq rhye bread
{əkəq}N ikeq əkəʀ bay; fjord
{əkətcitə}N ikitsit, ikitsisit əkət- matches
{əlivəq}N iliveq, ilerrit, ilerfit əɬivəʀ grave
{əməq}N imeq əməʀ(-) freshwater
{ənatcitə}N inatsit əna- law
{ənə}N ini ənə room
{əpəq}N ipeq əpəʀ dirt
{əqcək}N ersik əðəʀa(ʀ) shoulder hollow
{əqmusiq}N ermuseq əm(ə)ʀuciq mug
{əsi}N isi əciʀ drum skin; violin string
LOC{ət}V +miippoq, +niippoq, -miippoq, -niippoq ət- Actor is in/at/on N
{ətcik}N itsik əyyi(ʀ) egg whites
{ətəq}N iteq, eqqa ətəʀ anus
{əvsəq}N isseq əvtəʀ juice
{əvəgaq}N ivigaq, ivikkat əvəɣaʀ blade of grass
{əvək}N ivik əvəɣ blade of grass; ship biscuit