Morphemic form: V{(t)siq}V (Combinations)
New orthography: -tserpaa, +serpaa, -tsiivoq, +siivoq
Proto-eskimoic root: c(c)iʀ-
Variants: V{(t)sii}V
Morpheme type: Verbal modifier
Left sandhi: Special (see description)
Right sandhi: Assibilation


Form and usage:

The affix increases the valency of the stem by adding a new Agent role and equating the underlying Actor role of the stem with the Patient role of the affix. Note that if the stem is avalent (e.g. apivoq, 'it is snowing'), then the resulting stem will take a transitive form (e.g. apitserpaa), even though there is no real object, and it will thus just be marked as 3rd person, singular, with no explicit referent in the sentence.

The HTR-form of this affix is V{(t)sii}V as expected. However, this form is also (unexpectedly) used on its own as a divalent stem with a slightly different meaning, so we record it as a variant.

Left sandhi:

The affix is regularly epenthetic, i.e. (t) is inserted on vowel stems. However, note that the initial /s/ will not assimilate a preceding /t/, i.e. either if the epenthetic /t/ is inserted or if the preceding stem ends in /t/ (or t(ə), since the affix is additive.). In both these cases, the form will thus be -tser-.

Verb stem

Right sandhi: Regular
Valency: Valency-increasing
Diathesis: Reflexive/reciprocal (BP)
HTR-morpheme: {ði}
HTR-stem: V{(t)sii}V


Meaning Notes
Agent waits for Patient to Vb Examples