Morphemic form: V{ŋŋit}V (Combinations)
New orthography: -nngilaq, -nngilaa, -nngila?, -nngitsoq, -nngiliuk?, -nnginnama, -nngikkili!
Proto-eskimoic root: nʀit-
Morpheme type: Verbal modifier
Left sandhi: Default (additive, epenthetic or phonotactically truncative)
Right sandhi: Assibilation, tc-exception


Form and usage:

The negation affix. This is a very common affix; partly because many Greenlandic verbal stems have an inherently negative meaning, so the only way to express the positive/opposite meaning is by negating the stem.

This affix takes a completely idiosyncratic set of endings in some of the moods, if (and only if!) it is the last affix before the ending (see the AITWG p. 183). The changes are:

Furthermore, this affix is a t-stem, so with intransitive participial and participle /t/ is not assimilated; i.e. /tð/ ⇒ 'ts', thus yielding -nngitsoq, -nngitsunga etc.

However, it also has a true /i/, which therefore may assibilate a (single), following /t/. This happens in particular with the passive participle V{-ðaq}N, since its own idiosyncratic left-sandhi behaviour precisely results in a single /t/ before /i/. Thus we get:

V{ŋŋit}V{-ðaq}N ⇒ /ŋŋitaq/ ⇒ /ŋŋisaq/ ⇒ -nngisaq

Conjugation tables

Here is a table, showing the full set of intransitive endings for this affix. Only the iterative (ITE) and conditional (COND) moods are unaffected:

IND INTR IMP OPT CONT PART CAU ITE COND -nngilanga - - -nngikkilanga - -nngitsunga -nnginnama -nngikkaangama -nngikkuma -nngilatit -nngilatit - - - -nngitsutit -nnginnavit -nngikkaangavit -nngikkuit -nngilaq -nngila - -nngikkili - -nngitsoq -nngimmat -nngikkaangat -nngippat - - - - - - -nnginnami -nngikkaangami -nngikkuni -nngilagut - - -nngikkilata - -nngitsugut -nnginnatta -nngikkaangatta -nngikkutta -nngilasi -nngilasi - - - -nngitsusi -nnginnassi -nngikkaangassi -nngikkussi -nngillat -nngillat - -nngikkilit - -nngitsut -nngimmata -nngikkaangata -nngippata - - - - - - -nnginnamik -nngikkaangamik -nngikkunik

Verb stem

Right sandhi: Irregular changes to mood marker (see description)
Valency: Valency-preserving
Diathesis: Unaltered (same as the stem)


Meaning Notes
not, negation Examples