Morphemic form: V{-ut(ə)}V (Combinations)
New orthography: -uppaa, -appaa, -ussivoq, -assivoq
Proto-eskimoic root: utə-
Variants: V{ccut(ə)}V, V{'-t(ə)}V
Morpheme type: Verbal modifier
Left sandhi: Special (see description)
Right sandhi: None


Form and usage:

The affix is presumably related to the nominalising affix V{-utə}N, but exactly how (in terms of meaning) is not clear. However, this affix, together with its many variants, is the source of all t(ə)-stems in Greenlandic. They all share some peculiar features, in particular w.r.t. their right-sandhi behaviour: They behave like t-stems (consonant stem) before additive affixes and endings, but as vowel stems (ə-stem) before truncative affixes and endings. This also includes t-truncative affixes, in particular V{tət}V.

As an example, consider the additive affix V{ðaq}V, the truncative affix V{ssa}V, and the aforementioned V{tət}. Combining with V{-ut(ə)}V yields the following:

Another speciality of t(ə)-stems is that their HTR-form is always -ssivoq. This is the tell-tale sign of an underlying (ə), and thus they may always be recognised, even in a dictionary like the DAKA, if the HTR-form is provided. They take the HTR-morpheme {ði}, and /ð/ becomes /c/ because of the preceding vowel, /ə/. However, for unknown reasons, /ə/ is then elided, and /c/ then assimilates the preceding /t/, which is also uncommon, since /tc/ usually yields 'ts'. Thus:

A similar result arises when combining this affix (or its variants) with the passive participle V{-ðaq}V. Here too, the truncativity of V{-ðaq}V seemingly makes (ə) appear, such as to cause /ð/ to become /c/, but then /ə/ is nevertheless still elided. Then /tc/ assimilate to /cc/, rather than becoming 'ts', so the final result is -ssaq. This is another common sign of an underlying (ə). The proces is thus:

Furthermore, the meaning of this affix is quite complicated. The general meaning is 'do with/for', but it works opposite to the other valency-increasing affixes in that it adds a new Patient role to the relation (rather than a new Agent role):

When used with intransitive endings, the result may be reflexive (he Vb's with/for himself) or, if the ending is plural, reciprocal (they Vb with/for each other). However, this only makes sense if the subject of the verb is a person; if it is a thing the meaning may instead be resultative passive (subject is Vb'ed).

Left sandhi:

This affix will regularly remove a stem-final /aq/ from the preceding stem if possible, i.e. if the stem ends on /Vaq/. If the stem ends on /Caq/, it may just remove the final /q/ as an ordinary truncative affix. Alternatively, it may instead join directly onto /q/ and just weaken it to /r/, thus:

This behaviour is probably not regular, but it may be seen in some lexicalised constructions (see examples). The same may happen, if the stem ends on /əq/, to avoid triggering the ə-rule (similar to vowel-initial endings on strong q-stems ending in /əq/), thus:

Alternatively, it may remove /q/ and actually cause /ə/ to take the sound [a]. Neither behaviour seems to be regular today, but may be seen in lexicalised examples.

Otherwise, the affix is regularly truncative. However, in the cases where an epenthetic /j/ otherwise would be injected for phonotactic reasons (e.g. following /aa/), this affix seems to instead prefer the variant V{ccut(ə)}V, i.e. injecting /cc/ instead of regular /j/.

Verb stem

Right sandhi: Regular
Valency: Valency-increasing
Diathesis: Reflexive/reciprocal (BP)
HTR-morpheme: {ði}
HTR-stem: V{-ucci}V


Meaning Notes
Agent Vb for Patient Examples
Agent Vb with Patient` Or 'at/with respect to' the Patient. Examples
Agent Vb the Object With trivalents tems that have an implicit Object role (referenced in the Instrumental case). Examples
Agents Vb each other (together, in a group) When used intransitively without HTR, and with endings in plural. Examples