Morphemic form: V{-ðaq}N (Combinations)
New orthography: -taq, +saq, -saq, -gaq, -aq
Proto-eskimoic root: ðaʀ, kaʀ
Morpheme type: Nominaliser
Left sandhi: Special (see description)
Right sandhi: None


Form and usage:

This affix is used to create nouns from divalent stems that represent the Patient role of the verbal action. It can be translated as 'one who is Vb'ed' or perhaps as 'Vb'ee' (compare e.g. English 'to train', 'trainee' = 'one who is trained'). Given the meaning, it only makes sense on divalent stems (and is only used productively on such stems), although there are a few lexicalised examples of it being used even on monovalent stems (where the meaning implies a Patient).

The affix is commonly used with possessive endings to express 'a Patient that was Vb'ed by Possessor', which can correspond to a sub-clause with 'who(m)' in English. For example:

The noun created by this affix can also be incorporated again by another affix. There are in particular two common constructions:

Left sandhi:

According to Fortescue et al. (2010), this affix is historically two different morphemes, {ðaʀ} and {kaʀ} with the same meaning, but with different sandhi behaviour, and seemingly with one morpheme being preferred on some stem types, and another on other stem types. The current usage is a blend between the two (suppletion), leading to much irregularity. Thus, this affix has idiosyncratic sandhi rules. Today, the rules are as follows:

Some further specialities:

This is historically a highly irregular affix, so you can find many lexicalised words containing this affix that do not follow these rules, e.g. ornigaq from {uqnək}V; allagaq from {aglak}V; and errortat (pl) from {ərruq}V. It seems like the {-gaq} form was previously preferred on k-stems, rather than on q-stems (as is the case today). On a few old, lexicalised stems, it even appears as just {-aq}, e.g. sanaaq, 'a product; something made', from {sana}V, Agent produces/processes Patient, although this usage is not regular nowadays.

Declension information

Stem type: Weak q-stem
Declension type: p-declined
Declension sandhi: Regular ABS.3sg/sg Special forms
New orthography -taq -tap -tat -tamut -taa
Phonemic notation -ðaq -ðap -ðat -ðamut -ðaa

Stem type: Weak q-stem
Declension type: p-declined
Declension sandhi: Gemination
Gemination type: /g/ => /kk/ ABS.3sg/sg Special forms
New orthography -gaq -kkap -kkat -kkamut -gaa -kki (ABS.4sg/sg)
Phonemic notation -gaq -ggap -ggat -ggamut -gaa -ggi (ABS.4sg/sg)


Meaning Notes
one who/that is Vb'ed (passive participle) Or 'a Vb'ee' or similar. Examples