Morphemic form: V{tqu}V (Combinations)
New orthography: -qquaa, -qqusivoq, -qquvoq, -qqullugu, -qqulluni, -qqunagu, -qqunani
Proto-eskimoic root: ðqə
Morpheme type: Verbal modifier
Left sandhi: Default (additive, epenthetic or phonotactically truncative)
Right sandhi: None


Form and usage:

The meaning of this affix is 'Agent bids Patient Vb'. Thus, it is valency-increasing and can form so-called 'double-transitive' verbs, if used on a divalent-stem:

In the latter case, an underlying Agent of the stem can optionally be added in the allative case. Consider the sentence

This is a double-transitive construction: Evap qitsuk paaraa means 'Eva looks after the cat', but by adding V{tqu}V to the stem {paarə}V, we introduce a new Agent (who is doing the bidding), whilst the Patient remains the same. The former/underlying Agent of the stem can the optionally be specified in the allative case (here Evamut).

Note also that the diathesis is reflexive. Thus, if this affix is used in intransitive form without an intervening HTR-morpheme, the meaning becomes: 'Agent bids (someone) to Vb him', which perhaps best can be translated as 'Agent requests to be Vb'ed (by someone)', where someone likewise can be explicitly specified in the Allative case, as with the double-transitive constructions above.

Special constructions

Besides the above, this affix is also used in some special constructions with the contemporative moods:

In both cases, if there is coreference between the object of -qqu- and the subject of the main clause, and this is a 3rd person, then a 4th person contemporative ending is used, i.e. an intransitive ending. Consider the following examples:

The same applies with the negative contemporative endings.

Verb stem

Right sandhi: Regular
Valency: Valency-increasing
Diathesis: Reflexive/reciprocal (BP)
HTR-morpheme: {ði}
HTR-stem: V{tquci}V


Meaning Notes
Agent bids/asks Patient to Vb Examples
Agent requests to be Vb'ed When used intransitively, without an intervening HTR-morpheme. Examples
in order to Vb When used with positive contemporative endings {(l)lu}. The person who does something in order to Vb will be the object of the sentence. Examples
without Vb'ing When used with negative contemporative endings {na}. The person who does not Vb will be the object of the sentence.